Chapter 1. 1. THE GOD. PARTICLE. If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? LEON LEDERMAN. WITH DICK TERESI. Delta. Trade Paperbacks. The search for the fundamental particles and forces of nature o Revolutions of .. Leon Lederman shared the Nobel prize for Physics for the discovery of. Beyond the God Particle by Leon Lederman and Christopher Hill. Amherst, NY: Pro- metheus Books, pages (acknowl- edgments, appendix, notes.
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Download THE GOD PARTICLE (PDF 28p) Download free online book chm pdf. The Entrapment Of Leon, The Library Of Matter. Author(s): Leon Lederman. The God particle by Leon M. Lederman; 6 editions; First published in ; Subjects: Constitution, Higgs bosons, Matter, Particles (Nuclear. Two leading physicists discuss the importance of the Higgs Boson, the future of particle physics, and the mysteries of the universe yet to be unraveled.
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Free Physics Books. Author s: Leon Lederman 28 Pages. Similar Books. Uwe-Jens Wiese Pages. Modern Experimental Particle Physics This note addresses current research topics in particle and astroparticle physics, and focuses on aspects of current and future experiments in the area. Lund University NA Pages. Jeff Asaf Dror Pages. Paolo Franzini Pages.
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Tertullian also rejects the pantheistic Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 7 notion that God and matter are the same. For Irenaeus and Tertullian, the doctrine of creation is part of a cosmic vision of the world that came about by a free exercise of the divine will. Creation depends on a transcendent God who is not far away. Augustine had to deal with the pantheism of the Neo-Platonists and the dualism of his erstwhile associates, the Manicheans.
Augustine also saw creation as an ongoing activity. According to Aquinas God is not only the efficient, necessary, and universal cause, God is the pure act of being. God is not an essence that has an existence. God is the sheer act of existence itself. His freedom is manifest in the original and ongoing act of creation and yet creatures have their own autonomy. The Council of Florence in reaffirmed creation as good, created ex nihilo.
This was the last time that dualism and creation from poesis were significant issues in the Church. Creatio ex Nihilo was the central symbol by which the Church of the Fathers and the Middle Ages described the relationship between God and the physical world.
The Enlightenment gave rise to the view that Creatio ex Nihilo was a primitive myth. God ceased being a personal being and became the first cause, in the view of the deist movement.
Pantheism returned with the notion that God was one with the developing universe. Perhaps the greatest challenge to Creatio ex Nihilo was biological evolution.
The condemnation of materialism precluded a deeper look at the theory of evolution. This led to a series of attempts to explain emerging evidence from biology and geology as somehow consonant or concordant with the creation account in Genesis.
There were significant efforts during the pontificate of Pius X at the turn of the 20th century to encourage a more literal reading of Genesis and to inhibit the Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 9 emerging historical, cultural, and linguistic approaches to scripture. Pius XII in his encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu in opened the door to biblical scholarship and a return to allegorical interpretations of scripture which had been so predominant in the Patristic period and the Middle Ages.
Clifford, , p. The notion of dualism is the metaphysical foundation for the Star Wars saga. The proper ordering of the empire by the victory of the Jedi knights leads to an imbalance in the Force which leads to the rise of dark elements of the Force to re-establish equilibrium. Creation and natural theology are also missing in the Star Wars saga. God is not acting in creation nor is there a Divine self-disclosure or revelation. The protagonists are Post-Modern Platonists striving for ethical poesis using their own gifts to become someone better and more virtuous by adhering to the ideal of the Good.
The first is to have children. The third is to use our love for the good to contemplate it and to grow in virtue. When we are freed of the limitation of this body and shadow world we will then be able to gaze upon the One, the Good, and the Beautiful in unalloyed happiness. Plato advocates censorship in the Republic since poesis particularly in music and poetry can be subversive to political stability and order. The world of poesis alone is not a world of grace or transcendence nor it an intrinsically good material world.
Matter is partially redeemed by its transformation into useful and beautiful Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 10 things manifesting a deeper logos or ideal. However, ultimately, there is only the cycle of birth and death.
The proclamation of the Gospel by the early Christian community occurred in this cultural context, which was completely alien to the teachings of the Torah and the apostles. Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, , pp. Things fall into disarray and dysfunction through the sin of Adam and Eve but God does not abandon them.
He shepherds and guides his people in history through mighty deeds accomplished by very fallible leaders and His Word spoken through the prophets. Ultimately, in the Christian Good News, the one God becomes one of us, truly human and truly divine in Jesus, whose real physical death and resurrection in glory, reconcile the Creator with humanity in the love and grace of the Holy Spirit. This is the core teaching, the kerygma that God in Christ Jesus reveals to us and its foundation relies on the ancient belief of Israel and the Church that God made everything out of nothing.
The parabolic model she presents shows the importance of Creatio ex Nihilo as the mystery of God sweeping through creation in the history of salvation. The parabolic model parabola: to throw outward expresses the one ecstatic movement of God whereby all things originate with God and are returned to God.
LaCugna, , p. The first is theology in continuity with science.
Teilhard de Chardin is an example of this model, in which theology is swept along by science. The second model is science in continuity with religious belief. This can be seen in creation science, an effort by American Evangelicals to adjust the interpretation of scientific findings to accommodate a literal reading of the creation accounts.
The third model is that science and theology are totally distinct and separate areas of inquiry and discourse. The fourth model is the mutual interaction of theology and science. These, as the methods proper to every science and technique must be respected. Consequently, methodical research in all branches of knowledge, provided it is carried out in a truly scientific manner and does not override moral laws, can never conflict with the faith, because the things of the world and the things of faith derive from the same God.
For its part, theology deals with the Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 12 transcendent relationship with God and raises a priori questions about the ultimate ground of reality and affirms God as that ultimate ground. It is also very timely in the post-modern age in which the empirical, logical science of Descartes and Newton have given way to the relativity of Einstein, the uncertainty of Heisenberg, and the evidence from quantum mechanics that human intention — consciousness and not matter - affects the outcome of physical experiments on the quantum level.
Creatio Ex Nihilo as a Contemporary Issue In the second paragraph of the first chapter of Lumen Gentium, we find an example of the importance of creation ex Nihilo in the very self-definition of the Church. The eternal Father, in accordance with the utterly free and mysterious design of his wisdom and goodness, created the entire universe. Contemporary physics, based on quantum mechanics, has led to a broader cultural crisis regarding what we can know with certainty and what truth is.
The work of physicist Amit Goswami is an example of the increased relevance of creation and natural theology. Goswami claims that the intentionality effect in physics experiments proves the existence of the spiritual. The governing principle of the physics of the cosmos is not the action of matter on matter but the action of consciousness on matter. Consequently, our collective direction of consciousness can save us from ourselves and lead us to a world of peace and plenty.
Of course the major difference, in the work of Chardin is that God is the source, direction, and end of the human spiral to the Omega Point. Certainly, Teilhard de Chardin alarmed many scholars and Church officials because of a possible interpretation of his work that might imply that God is the physical universe — pantheism — which, as we have seen was one of the key convictions of the dualistic non-Christian, ancient world.
Indeed Goswami does defend the otherness of God outside the physical world but he also sees God as immanent in the pantheistic sense. For Goswami, God is not transcendent to the extent that God is directed by our conscious intentionality.
Nevertheless the well intentioned work of Goswami shows that Creatio ex Nihilo is a resurgent contemporary issue.
Creatio ex Nihilo also comes to the fore in the search for the God particle and its attendant world wide publicity. The other response is to reaffirm the battle between faith and reason. The use of the term creation implies an apprehension of the cosmos as created, as an overflowing of Good that is diffusive of itself.
Our faith inspired reflection on this experience leads us to a theology of nature or a natural theology.
He lists the revelatory modes of communication as: The order of nature, historical events, symbolic words, interior illuminations and propositional statements…The true content of revelation — revelation in the objective sense — is the divinely intended and humanly perceived significance of the events and words. Since natural revelation is open, in principle, to all human beings, it can be the basis for evangelization in our post-modern culture.
In The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, section 3 of Dei Verbum, the Second Vatican Council states: God, who creates and conserves all things by his word see Jn , provides constant evidence of himself in created realities see Romans …and he has never ceased to take care of the human race, in order to give eternal life to all those who seek salvation by persevering in doing good see Rom Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, , p.
When other tiny building blocks pass through it, they stick together, slow down and form atoms. However, we will focus on a few key concepts in order to understand what the Higgs boson is and its significance for the Standard Model and our understanding of the physical world.
The Standard Model is an attempt to use one mathematical formula to describe all of the physical interactions of the universe.
According to the Standard Model, in the beginning there came to be particles moving at the speed of light without mass.
Ian Sample a science correspondent for the Guardian Newspaper in London, presents this explanation in a 4 and one half minute video. Sample, In the first trillionths of a second of time, the particles such as electrons and quarks entered the Higgs field and were transformed from particles without mass into particles with mass.
If the Higgs field is compared to a tray of sugar, the Higgs boson could be compared to a grain of sugar. It is the prime constituent of the Higgs Field. The photon, however, continued and continues to be a mass-less particle traveling at the speed of light.
Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 16 In the large hadron collider LHC at CERN which is 27 kilometers 17 miles in diameter and meters feet below the surface of the earth, protons are accelerated to speeds approaching the speed of light.
These protons crash together inside vast detectors that are 3 stories high. When the constituents of the protons collide a very small amount of energy is released. Photons and quarks will come out and occasionally a Higgs boson will come out.
The Higgs boson is only observed once in 1 trillion proton-proton collisions. In addition the Higgs boson almost immediately decays into other particles which in turn decay into other particles. This makes looking for the Higgs boson very difficult.
According to Sample, the Higgs boson will help with several mathematical explanations and will probably round out the Standard Model. We should remember that the Standard Model does not explain gravity. Sample commented that scientists hope that once they really study the Higgs boson it will lead them into new directions and open up new horizons.
Sample, Science and Natural Theology Lederman, in his book The God Particle, makes it clear that the Standard Model does not deal with the actual beginning of the Big Bang or the actual moment of creation.
The Standard Model deals with the first trillionths of a billionth of seconds. Krauss, In an interview with Stephen Colbert, Krause explains that Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 17 according to quantum mechanics nothing - that is empty space - is roiling with virtual particles going in and out of existence and if you wait long enough real particles will emerge.
Clearly, Krause might come close to a natural theology if he knew more about contemporary scripture studies and theology. Unfortunately, many scientists and the general public misconceive of theology as an anti-rational biblical literalism. It is hard for scientists and Christian biblical literalists to see the midway path between faith and reason as described by Newman. The distinction does not appear to be lost on Peter Higgs. Higgs argued that although he was not a believer, he thought science and religion were not incompatible.
But that's not the same thing as saying they're incompatible. It's just that I think some of the traditional reasons for belief, going back thousands of years, are rather undermined. Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 18 "But that doesn't end the whole thing. Anybody who is a convinced but not a dogmatic believer can continue to hold his belief.
It means I think you have to be rather more careful about the whole debate between science and religion than some people have been in the past. The materialism of empirical science combined with the uncertainty and flux of fields in quantum mechanics is creating a movement of re-enchantment.
Gibson also records efforts by those in the feminist movement to take on the myth of Gaia to counter the masculine ethos of subduing and destroying nature.
The almost restored goddess lost her standing as even a metaphor and became at best a simile. Once again rational science had won out as the primary epistemological base for knowledge and maintained the secularization of the physical world.
In short a possible natural theology based on the earth goddess was not within the conceptual reach of the post- modern mind. In general terms, we can say that the reenchantment movement in its various forms never achieved the strength and solidity that a natural theology could have provided because it Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 20 espoused various types of pantheism and generally rejected or perhaps were unaware of the Christian tradition of Creatio ex Nihilo, Pastoral Implications Bearing witness to the Risen Christ in our time requires us to speak the language of science guided by the light of our faith in scripture and in tradition inspired by the Holy Spirit.
To do this we need to reassert the interaction of theology and science, to rekindle our awe of the physical universe and reflect on it through the lens of our faith. More than anything we are challenged to be present to people with and without faith as they reflect on the nature of the universe and the laws of physics and to be prepared to journey with them in silence, conversation, or research.
A renewed natural theology can have many pastoral applications including: 1 increased scientific and theological literacy, 2 a more informed and effective witness to the existence and providence of God, 3 a joyful encounter with creation as revelation and 4 a reverent stewardship of the planet at a time of human caused ecological crisis. After modeling this behavior, we need to provide special learning and sharing activities dealing with faith and science in a wide variety of environments, including online distance education, home schooling programs, and youth and adult faith formation activities.
Building on our tradition, we can come to a renewed natural theology. Delio observes that Catholic theologians and Catholic theology in its present form may not to be up to the task. Some theologians have worked to connect these truths. Karl Rahner, S.
Another Jesuit priest, Bernard Lohergan, drew on the scientific method to develop a method of theology. Today, some Catholic theologians like John F.
Haught engage the sciences to illuminate areas of systematic theology like divine action; others like Denis Edwards are trying to deepen theological insight on questions in ecology, such as climate change.
But on the whole, Catholic theology remains a product of Augustinian, Thomistic and Aristotelian ideas. Few Catholic theologians are grappling with the sciences on their own terms as a means of theological reflection. Delio, While there is significant potential for this dialog and possible reconciliation in the Catholic university, it seems more likely to happen in universities that have departments of Catholic Studies or in Pastoral Studies programs, since the incentives for this type of study and cooperation are more operative in a non-theological environment.
In order for Catholic theologians to meet their professional obligations as scholars there is a strong cloistered mentality among even the most secular.