Telecommunication switching systems and networks by thiagarajan viswanathan pdf

 

    Thiagarajan Viswanathan. 1 STROWGER SWITCHING SYSTEMS . a treatment on both switching systems and telecommunication networks in a. Telecommunication switching systems and networks. Viswanathan, Thiagarajan View/Open · Icon. Name: 2. Chapter pdf. Size: Mb. Format: PDF. TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS. By THIAGARAJAN VISWANATHAN, MANAV BHATNAGAR.

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    Telecommunication Switching Systems And Networks By Thiagarajan Viswanathan Pdf

    Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks, Second Edition by Viswanathan, Thiagarajan, Bhatnagar, Manav __ __ Phi Learning. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Feb 28, , Thiagarajan Viswanathan and others published Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks. Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks book. Read 4 reviews from the by. Thiagarajan Viswanathan Thiagarajan Viswanathan. · Rating.

    This well-accepted textbook, now in its Second Edition, is designed for the final-year undergraduate and the first-year graduate students in electronics and communication engineering and al The rapid expansion of the field of telecommunication networks call for a new edition to assist the readers with development of understanding towards new telecommunication technologies. This well-accepted textbook, now in its Second Edition, is designed for the final-year undergraduate and the first-year graduate students in electronics and communication engineering and allied subjects. It fulfils the need for a suitable textbook in the area of telecommunication switching systems and networks. The text covers, in a single volume, both switching systems and telecommunications networks. The book begins with a brief discussion on the evolution of telecommunication.

    More Details Original Title. Other Editions 2. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks.

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    The carbon microphone requires a minimum of 24 mA as energizing current. All resistances are in series. A manual switchboard system needs to support subscribers, numbered — Average peak hour traffic is calls. An operator is capable of handling 30 simultaneous calls. Suggest a suitable manual switchboard system design that minimizes the total number of terminations at the switchboards and employ the minimum number of operators.

    Estimate the number of terminations in your design. Crossbar Switching 1. Numbering plan in a telephone network must be independent of call routing. Ans: Consider a multi exchange network as shown below: If a subscriber in exchange A wants to call a subscriber in exchange F, the call has to be routed via at least 3 exchanges and there are two routes possible. A-B-C-J-F and A-I-H-G-F And the outlets are assigned as sown below: Let be the subscriber to be called in exchange F and can be reached by calling the following numbers of sequence: Difficulties with this type of network are as follows; 1.

    Identification number of a subscriber is route dependent. The user must have the knowledge of the topology of the network and outlet assignment in each exchange. Depending upon from which exchange the call originates, the number and its size vary for the same called subscriber.

    These difficulties can be overcome by the following: 1. Let exchange the routing. Uniform numbering scheme as far as user is concerned.

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    A number with two parts: An exchange identifier and subscriber line identifier. Thus the numbering plan in a telephone network must be independent of call routing. What are the differences between common control and direct control? Common Control Direct Control Control subsystems are outside of switching system Control subsystems are integral part of switching system Ex.

    Strowger exchange Ex. Stored program control Hard wired control subsystems Computer or processor control susbsystems Limited capability High capability Impossible to add new features Easy to add new features by changing control program 3. List 6 events that may occur in a telephone system and the corresponding actions to be taken by the common control system. Ans: The six events are: 1. Event sensing 3. Register finding 4. Choosing appropriate register 5. Initial translator 6. Final translator The occurrence of events is signaled by operating relay which initiate control action.

    Line units handle the call request and call release signals. These line units themselves may initiate control actions on the occurrence of certain line events. When a subscriber goes off hook, the event is sensed; the calling location is determined and marked for dial tone. The register finder is activated to seize a free register.

    Identity of the calling line is used to determine line category and the class of service to which the subscriber belongs. A register appropriate to the line category is chosen, which then sends out the dial tone to the subscriber, in readiness to receive the dialing information.

    As soon as the initial digits usually are received in the register, they are passed on to the initial translator for processing. The initial translator determines the route for the call through the network and decides whether a call should be put through or not.

    It also determines the charging method and the rates applicable to the subscriber. Such decisions are based on the class of service information of the subscriber which specifies details such as the following: Call barring, Call priority, Call charging, Origin based routing, No dialing calls 6. If a call is destined to number in an exchange other than the present one processing the digits, the initial translator generates the required routing digits and passes them on to the register sender.

    Register sender uses appropriate signaling technique, depending on the requirements of the destination exchange. If a call is destined to a subscriber within the same exchange, the digits are processed by the final translator.

    Calculate the time taken to dial a digit number in a DTMF telephone when a The exchange is capable of receiving a DTMF signals; and b The exchange can receive only pulse dialing Compare the result with a rotary telephone dialing. How does the DTMF dial design take this into account? Ans: The probability of talk-off can be reduced by increasing the duration of the test applied to a signal by the receiver before accepting the signal as valid.

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    But, it is clearly unacceptable to expect the user to extend the push button operation for this purpose, beyond an interval that is natural to his dialing habit. A minimum of 40 ms has been chosen for both signal and inter-signal intervals, allowing for a dialing rate of over 10 signals per second. Show that the harmonic frequencies of any two adjacent base frequencies in DTMF telephone cannot match within the 15 harmonics.

    Ans: Having decided on the frequency band and the spacing, the specific values of the frequencies can be so chosen as to avoid simple harmonic relationships like and between two adjacent frequencies in the same band and between pairs of frequencies in the two different bands, respectively.

    The adjacent frequencies in the same band have fixed ratio of , i. Across the bands, the frequencies that lie along the diagonals have the ratio of Thus the chosen frequency values are such that they almost eliminate talk-off possibility due to harmonics.

    If the transmitted power of the low band frequency signal from a DTMF telephone is 1 mW, what should be the power in mW of the high band frequencies? A telephone exchange supporting subscribers uses a DTMF dialing and a common control subsystem with digit receivers. Depending upon from which exchange the call originates, the number and its size vary for the same called subscriber. These difficulties can be overcome by the following: 1. Let exchange the routing. Uniform numbering scheme as far as user is concerned.

    A number with two parts: An exchange identifier and subscriber line identifier. Thus the numbering plan in a telephone network must be independent of call routing. What are the differences between common control and direct control? Common Control Direct Control Control subsystems are outside of switching system Control subsystems are integral part of switching system Ex.

    Strowger exchange Ex. Stored program control Hard wired control subsystems Computer or processor control susbsystems Limited capability High capability Impossible to add new features Easy to add new features by changing control program 3.

    List 6 events that may occur in a telephone system and the corresponding actions to be taken by the common control system. Ans: The six events are: 1. Event sensing 3. Register finding 4. Choosing appropriate register 5.

    Initial translator 6. Final translator The occurrence of events is signaled by operating relay which initiate control action. Line units handle the call request and call release signals. These line units themselves may initiate control actions on the occurrence of certain line events.

    When a subscriber goes off hook, the event is sensed; the calling location is determined and marked for dial tone. The register finder is activated to seize a free register. Identity of the calling line is used to determine line category and the class of service to which the subscriber belongs.

    A register appropriate to the line category is chosen, which then sends out the dial tone to the subscriber, in readiness to receive the dialing information. As soon as the initial digits usually are received in the register, they are passed on to the initial translator for processing. The initial translator determines the route for the call through the network and decides whether a call should be put through or not.

    It also determines the charging method and the rates applicable to the subscriber. Such decisions are based on the class of service information of the subscriber which specifies details such as the following: Call barring, Call priority, Call charging, Origin based routing, No dialing calls 6.

    If a call is destined to number in an exchange other than the present one processing the digits, the initial translator generates the required routing digits and passes them on to the register sender. Register sender uses appropriate signaling technique, depending on the requirements of the destination exchange. If a call is destined to a subscriber within the same exchange, the digits are processed by the final translator. Calculate the time taken to dial a digit number in a DTMF telephone when a The exchange is capable of receiving a DTMF signals; and b The exchange can receive only pulse dialing Compare the result with a rotary telephone dialing.

    How does the DTMF dial design take this into account? Ans: The probability of talk-off can be reduced by increasing the duration of the test applied to a signal by the receiver before accepting the signal as valid. But, it is clearly unacceptable to expect the user to extend the push button operation for this purpose, beyond an interval that is natural to his dialing habit.

    A minimum of 40 ms has been chosen for both signal and inter-signal intervals, allowing for a dialing rate of over 10 signals per second. Show that the harmonic frequencies of any two adjacent base frequencies in DTMF telephone cannot match within the 15 harmonics.

    Ans: Having decided on the frequency band and the spacing, the specific values of the frequencies can be so chosen as to avoid simple harmonic relationships like and between two adjacent frequencies in the same band and between pairs of frequencies in the two different bands, respectively. The adjacent frequencies in the same band have fixed ratio of , i. Across the bands, the frequencies that lie along the diagonals have the ratio of Thus the chosen frequency values are such that they almost eliminate talk-off possibility due to harmonics.

    If the transmitted power of the low band frequency signal from a DTMF telephone is 1 mW, what should be the power in mW of the high band frequencies? A telephone exchange supporting subscribers uses a DTMF dialing and a common control subsystem with digit receivers.

    Each digit receiver is assigned for duration of 5 seconds per subscriber call processing. A diagonal cross point matrix exchange supports users. On an average calls are put through everyday. If the cross point contacts have a mean life of breaks and makes, estimate as to how often a cross point may be replaced in this exchange. Estimate the number of cross points required to design an exchange that supports users on a non-blocking basis and 50 transit, outgoing or incoming calls simultaneously.

    A blocking crossbar switch is to be designed to support subscribers. Electronic Space Division Switching 1.

    Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks

    Define each of the following terms: Program, Procedure, processor, process, user, task, job and subroutine. Ans: Program: A program is a set of instructions executed in a predefined order and execution is dependent on the conditions in the program. Procedure: It is a part of the code written in a larger program which performs a specific task and is relatively independent of the remaining code.

    Processor: The part of a computer system that interprets the instruction. Process: A process is an active entity. It can be thought of as a program under execution. User: A user is a person or a system that uses the system to perform some operation to get the results.

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